What makes a Superfund site?
Superfund sites are polluted locations in the United States requiring a long-term response to clean up hazardous material contaminations. They were designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980.
What does Superfund mean?
Superfund is the common name given to the law called the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA. Superfund is also the trust fund set up by Congress to handle emergency and hazardous waste sites needing long-term cleanup.
What is a Superfund site and how does the program work?
EPA’s Superfund program is responsible for cleaning up some of the nation’s most contaminated land and responding to environmental emergencies, oil spills and natural disasters.
Which state has the most Superfund sites?
Since industry and waste tend to follow people, Superfund sites are often concentrated in highly populated areas. New Jersey — the densest state by population — has more toxic sites than any other state in the country, at 114, with California and Pennsylvania close behind.
Is it safe to live near a Superfund site?
Are all Superfund sites dangerous ? Yes, and no. The EPA deems many areas as “ safe ” after cleanup goals are met, such as removing all contaminated earth or pollutants. The EPA’s risk assessment guide says that many areas that have been cleaned up pose “little” risk.
What is the largest Superfund site in the US?
Site Profile Pages The 586 square mile Hanford Site is home to one of the largest Superfund cleanups in the nation. Hanford is divided into four National Priorities List (NPL) sites .
Is Superfund effective?
A study of a sample of 77 Superfund sites revealed that more than 91 percent of the estimated cancer risk would accrue only to people who might move near the site in the future, not to actual individuals at the site.
Where does Superfund money come from?
The Superfund trust fund has received revenue from four major sources: taxes on crude oil and certain chemicals, as well as an environmental tax assessed on corporations based upon their taxable income; appropriations from the general fund; fines, penalties, and recoveries from responsible parties; and interest accrued
How does Superfund work?
It allows EPA to clean up contaminated sites. It also forces the parties responsible for the contamination to either perform cleanups or reimburse the government for EPA-led cleanup work . When there is no viable responsible party, Superfund gives EPA the funds and authority to clean up contaminated sites.
Who pays for Superfund cleanup?
The Superfund Trust Fund provides tax money to pay the Federal share of site cleanups , but whenever possible EPA forces those responsible for contaminating a site to clean it up. Sharing Cleanup Costs Businesses often create Superfund sites by improperly disposing of hazardous wastes.
How long does it take to clean a Superfund site?
For planning its Superfund activities, EPA set an expectation for 1993 that sites would be cleaned up within 5 years of being listed. EPA officials said that they have not formally revised the expectation, but now believe that sites will be cleaned up within 7 or 8 years of their listing.
Why are Superfund sites important?
The Superfund program makes a visible and lasting difference in communities cleaning up the nation’s worst hazardous waste sites , tackling threats to public health and our natural environment, supporting local economies and enhancing quality of life, preventing future releases of hazardous substances, and leading to
What is the most toxic city in America?
The EPA has declared Picher to be the most toxic city in the United States of America . It remains a ghost town , completely uninhabitable.
Where is the most toxic place in America?
The title for most toxic location in the United States goes to a remote, and perhaps surprising location. According to the EPA’s Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), Kotzebue, Alaska, a city of 3,500 residents located 30 miles north of the Arctic Circle takes that dubious honor.
How close is too close to a Superfund site?
Superfund Sites – Environmental Hazards This vapor intrusion then poses further risk to nearby residents, inside of their homes where they would otherwise be inclined to feel safe. Obviously, proximity to a Superfund site is critical; four miles’ distance poses a decreased health risk as compared to a mere forty feet.